Policies of Hamdard Islamicus

Policy Document (PDF)


About the Journal

Hamdard Islamicus, a quarterly research Journal of international repute, is being published regularly without break, since 1978. 

Articles by learned research scholars from all over the world are published in the Hamdard Islamicus. In it different aspects of Islam and their impact on Muslim and non-Muslim societies are discussed. The Journal tries to foster internal as well as external dialogue among Muslims and with those of other faiths, in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, in order to encourage an atmosphere conducive to universal peace and understanding, for a better world. It aims at interpreting the teachings of Islam in such a way as to bring out its dynamic character, in the context of the intellectual and scientific progress of the modern world. Hamdard Islamicus is an Academic Journal devoted to Islamic research and scholarship. It is to serve as a forum for scholars to write objectively, analytically and, where ever necessary, critically on Islamic History, Philosophy, Science, Arts, Culture, Archaeology, Law, and Jurisprudence etc.


Aims and Objectives

Hamdard Islamicus is an Academic Journal devoted to Islamic research and scholarship
It is to serve as a forum for scholars to write objectively, analytically and, where ever necessary, critically on Islamic History, Philosophy, Science, Arts, Culture, Archaeology, Law, and Jurisprudence etc.

It brings out the achievements of Muslims in the fields of Humanities, Social and Natural sciences.

It aims at defining Islam in terms of its fundamentals in a rational and liberal manner emphasizing, at the same time, the basic Islamic ideals of universal brotherhood, tolerance, and social justice.

It aims at interpreting the teachings of Islam in such a way as to bring out its dynamic character in the context of the intellectual and scientific progress of the modern world.

It provides an open forum for a dialogue among the Fundamentalist, Conservative, and the Modernist schools of thought among the Muslims aiming at finding a balanced view.

It endeavours, through dialogue, to find Islamic answers to the question relating to social, political, economic, and moral problems of the fast and drastically changing world of today.

It transmits through English translation the speeches, learned papers, and discourses expressed in Urdu by highly qualified traditional scholars, the 'ulama', and, in this way, it communicates valuable material, otherwise inaccessible, to the non-Urdu readers.

It endeavours to promote better understanding between the Islamic World and the West.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Open Access Policy

All research articles published in Hamdard Islamicus are accessible openly: immediately freely available to read, download and share. Articles are published under the terms of a Creative Commons license which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.


Article Publishing Rights & Copy Right Policy

For Hamdard Islamicus to publish research articles, we need publishing rights both online and in print format. This is controlled by an arrangement between the author and Hamdard Islamicus. This arrangement manages the permit of the copyright to Hamdard Islamicus.  The Journal Hamdard Islamicus holds all the rights of publishing articles online and in print format.


Ethical Guidelines

Hamdard Islamicus is interested in publishing research-based articles on Islam’s different aspects, implementation of Shari’ah rules, and issues relating to the contemporary world.

In this regard comparative analysis is commendable.

It covers Islamic History and Islamic architecture as well.

It may be mentioned that no polemic debate is allowed on our journal’s pages.

Articles should be written in the English language with proper documentation.
For endnotes Chicago style is necessary.

Primary sources should be preferred.

Soft copy should be sent in MS Word format double spaced and a margin of one inch from each side on A4 size paper. Authors are requested to send c.v. as well.

No author is allowed to send his/her research article to more than one journals simultaneously.

The article may be sent to another journal only after getting final regrets from the Hamdard Islamicus.

All the correspondence would be with the corresponding author.


Peer Review Policy

The peer review process is one of the most important and fundamental components in the publication process. The credibility and reputation of a journal mainly depend on the integrity of the peer review process and the trust of authors.

Being an HEC recognized/accredited journal, Hamdard Islamicus follows peer review guidelines of HEC in true letter and spirit. All papers submitted to Hamdard Islamicus undergo a rigorous internal and external review by experts in the relevant area of interest


Internal Review

Each paper goes through an internal review by a relevant editorial board/ team member to determine whether it is properly formatted and follows the publication ethics. The member would also consider whether basic protocols of research have been followed in research design/analysis and contribution to the literature. At Hamdard Islamicus proper desk review process has been employed where articles must go through a process of passing a desk rejection/acceptance system before sending to an expert of the field, papers that do not meet the basic requirements are not sent out for external review.



External Review

Hamdard Islamicus follows a double-blind review process after a paper is screened through the internal review. Authors are requested not to include their personal information in the text of the paper. They are further indicated not to post their papers on any website to prevent their identity to the potential reviewers. While reviewers are also expected to refuse if they come to know about the identification of the author(s) of a paper referred to them for peer review.

External reviewers generally comment and suggest originality, quality of presentation, research design, data/results/conclusions, the usefulness of the study, and interest to the researcher's community. During an external review, if reviewers find that the research paper has major flaws that cannot be resolved through a major revision, they can recommend declining the paper.


Suggesting Reviewers

Following the HEC guidelines in letter and spirit, authors submitting their research papers to Hamdard Islamicus are not given an option to suggest potential reviewers for reviewing their research papers. While authors may indicate those scholars (due to any real or perceived conflict of interest) to whom they feel not suitable to serve as reviewers for their specific paper.


Criteria for Selection of Reviewers

Reviewers are selected carefully based on the following criteria:

  1. Must hold a Ph.D. degree or advance professional qualification with extensive professional/academic experience, i.e. CFA, CMA etc.
    2. Recognized well reputed expert in the field (having publications in reputable academic or professional research journals).
    3. Never coauthored a paper with the author(s).
    4. Not affiliated with the institution of author(s).
    5. Should have a good understanding of data analysis.


Resources Available to Reviewers

Reviewers of Hamdard Islamicus are reputable academic and professional researchers who have access to a wide range of research-related databases and other latest material. If reviewers need further material to complete their review, it is also provided to them.


Publication Ethics (for reviewers)

All reviewers are encouraged to follow the HEC guidelines for reviewers to meet their responsibilities in relation to objectivity, promptness, conflict of interest, confidentiality and reporting.


Steps in Peer Review Process

Peer review process can be broadly described as:


Steps of Review Process

Estimated Time


Submission of paper



First internal review *

3-4 weeks


External review

4-5 weeks


Communication of review reports to authors for minor/major revision **

1 week


Submission of the revised paper

4-8 weeks


Second internal review (to assess whether reviewers suggestions have been incorporated satisfactorily) ***

2-4 weeks


Acceptance of paper (on successful submission of revised paper)

1 week

* Paper is returned to authors if it does not meet the basic criteria.
** Paper is returned to authors if external reviewers find that the research paper has so serious faults that cannot be resolved through a major revision.
*** Authors are requested for further revision if editors find that reviewers’ suggestions have not been incorporated satisfactorily.
Note: Authors are requested to revise the paper carefully in accordance with the reviewers’ suggestions to avoid unnecessary delay in the review process.


Resubmission of paper (after peer review)

Nearly every published paper goes through at least one revision. Authors should take a revision request as good news and an opportunity to learn and improve the quality of their research paper. They are directed to revise the paper carefully in accordance with the reviewers’ suggestions to avoid needless interruption in the review process. Generally, when the review report is provided each review point is required to either be incorporated in the revised version of the paper or an appropriate response is expected from the Author. Author(s) should be very careful regarding accuracy and completeness in accordance with the reviewers’ suggested points, so as to avoid further review and delay (further revision can be recommended if editors find that reviewers’ suggestions have not been incorporated satisfactorily).

Keeping in view the other academic/professional commitments, authors may request extra time, if they feel that revision needs more effort and time to improve the quality of the paper.


Publication Timelines

Issue No.


Publishing Month














Appeal/Complaint Process

The Editorial Board of Hamdard Islamicus is committed to providing quality editorial services to its contributors and believes in building and maintaining trust and respect for all contributors, readers, and practitioners. Hamdard Islamicus believes to improve its services by responding to appeals and rectifying its mistakes against:

  1. a) Objection to publications causing harm to any party.
    b) Infringing ethical boundaries in any manner and.
    c) Rejection of research paper.

Authors/readers can submit their appeals directly to the Editor at editor@hamdardislamicus.com.pk. The appeal must provide detailed justification (harm, ethical issues, or response to editor/reviewer comments). The Editor would look after the matter independently and forward it to appropriate Hamdard Islamicus editorial board member. Finally, the board member after going through all of submittedthe complaints/justifications material can finally recommend acceptance of the appeal, further review, or uphold the original decision (if any).


English Language Editing

It is the basic responsibility of authors to ensure that their research papers should be free from spelling, typing, grammar, and syntax errors. Authors whose native language is not English must get their research paper edited by an English language expert.


Originality and Plagiarism Policy

In accordance with the guidelines of Higher Education Commission (HEC), Hamdard Islamicus observes Zero Tolerance to plagiarism. Hamdard Islamicus uses  Turnitin  for all research papers submitted to detect possible plagiarism. If similarity is more than 19%, the paper is returned to the author(s) immediately. Hamdard Islamicus follows HEC guidelines to make the determination whether (or to what extent) plagiarism exists.

If plagiarism or other unethical practices are detected after publishing the paper, editorial board has the authority to correct or retract the paper as HEC’s plagiarism policy. All authors are responsible for their content individually and collectively. In case of serious plagiarism issues, editorial board may decide to consult the institutions of authors.

Self-plagiarism: verbatim or substantial copying of authors’ own published work (or under consideration for publication at some other outlet) effecting originality of current submission is also not acceptable in any way.


Article Processing Charges/ Publication Fees

The journal does not charge an article submission fee.
Authors do not pay Article Processing Charge (APC) and Article Publication Fee (APF) to cover the costs of peer review administration and management, professional production of articles in PDF and other formats, and dissemination of published papers in various venues, in addition to other publishing functions.
All the expenses are born by its publisher

Hamdard Islamicus does not charge any fee for Submission or publication of an article.


Submission Guidelines:

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.

The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines


Author Guidelines

Title of the Script (16pt, Bold ,Times New Roman)

First Author’s Name1* (Apply* to the Corresponding author),

1* Affiliation (Department, Faculty/College, Institution/University)
Author's email:
Second Author’s Name2

2, Affiliation if different (Department, Faculty/College, Institution/University)
Author's email:


  • Scope

Hamdard Islamicus is an Academic Journal devoted to Islamic research and scholarship. It is to serve as a forum for scholars to write objectively, analytically and, where ever necessary, critically on different disciplines of Islamic Studies including, but not limited to; Holy Qur’an, Hadith, Fiq’h, Tafseer, History, Ideology, Philosophy, Science, Arts, Culture, Archaeology, Law, Jurisprudence, Banking, Finance, Political Sciences, Int’l Relations, Religious Studies, Business, Economics, Psychology, Social Issues, Education and Parenting. It brings out the achievements of Muslims in the fields of Humanities, Social and Natural Sciences.


  • General Guidelines

Complete length of the manuscript should be between 6000-7000 words excluding Abstract and end notes. It should be formatted to be on A4 sized paper, with 12pt font size for the text and 14-pt for headings.


  1. Abstract: ( 14pt, Bold, Times New Roman)

The abstract of the manuscript should be in the range of 150 (min) to 250 (max) words. The abstract must meet the below given criteria:

1- Should be a single paragraph with continuous synchronized sentences.
2- No sub heading and bullets are allowed.
3- If any abbreviation is used, its definition is necessary at its first mention.
4- Abstract must clearly and briefly defines the problem, research methodology, and
 author’s contribution to approach the defined problem and outcomes of the research.
5-Keywords: For indexing purpose, 3-7 keywords are required related to the article


  1. Introduction: ( 14pt, Bold, Times New Roman)

Research article would start with the breakup of “Introduction”. Which contains discussion on the problem, motivation, challenges and author contribution to this piece of work.  Define the clear goals and objectives. The introduction should reveal some broad knowledge of the overall topic and quickly focus on the major point of the paper. This introduction section ought to be concise and followed with no sub heading unless necessary and may define the organization or outline of article.


  1. Background, History, Review-of Literature and Methodology:
    (14pt, Bold, Times New Roman)

This section would provide passable background/literature review to support the research piece.  A Review-of-Literature is  required to cater information from various significant sources which provides support to the major points of the article. Only End-notes are allowed (at the end of manuscript) for citing the references in Chicago Manual of Style with no running sentences. The referred Journal, Books, Edited books must strictly follow the style provided in the given link. The study must contain the recent references from last 1 or 2 years in order to exhibit the existing and shaping challenges of recent advancements. If use any narration "It must be in closed quotation mark with italic font” along with the end-note reference .

Methodology section defines Problem statement, all the relevant and passable details of procedures, methods and tools adapted to meet the research objective and challenges. If the research piece is using any sort of data, then its source must be cited properly with author/creator name, title, published date of dataset/statistics, publisher, URL or other availability or access information of dataset. It can be segregated into different relevant segment and sub-segments according to the research requirement.  This section must maintain synchronization with upcoming sections of manuscript.


  1. Research outcomes/ result/findings (If any)

Make sure this container is not for the discussion. Here the author must present its finding, data representations/comparison charts /comparative analysis. If the data is represented in table form then it must be cross referenced Table 1


















                                                                         Table 1

The Results section presents the experimental data to the reader, and is not a place for discussion or interpretation of the data.

Preparation of Figures and Tables

Authors are supposed to embed all figures and tables at appropriate place within manuscript. Figures and tables should neither be submitted in separate files nor add at the end of manuscript. Figures and Tables should be numbered properly with descriptive title. Each Figure/Table must be explained within the text by referring to corresponding figure/table number. Any unexplained or unnumbered Figure/Table may cause rejection of the paper without being reviewed.

  1. Argument, Critique or Discussion

The unbiased important points or claims of the research work that are defined earlier are discussed here. The discussion is required to be reasonable, precise, well-supported, posit and the interpretation of the research findings. Use extensive classical citation along with recent literature work.

  1. Conclusion

The conclusion section should in range of 250-450 with running sentences. The conclusion section must define the below:

1- Main outcome of the research work.
2- Research significance (importance of the research).
3- Relevance.
4- Limitation.
5- Application.
6- Recommendations.

Note:  Do not use citation, cross-reference, subheading, point-list in this section.

  1. Declarations


All acknowledgments (assuming any) ought to be remembered in a separate section before the references and may incorporate list of peoples who supported and contributed to the research work in anyway.

Funding source

The funding source section will be added if there is any funding source or supporting grant to the proposed research piece. It will be mention here in this section with the full name of funding agency and supporting grant with the grant number.

  1. References

All references are required to be complete, accurate, authentic and primary (Journal, online books, proceedings, patents, authentic websites with permanent archival policy). Grey literature (unauthentic website, news portal, social media, Wikipedia etc.) are not encouraged. If the author is referring hadith, Tafasir or fiqh books then use original root books.


Important notes:

-For Holy Quranic text (Arabic) use font AHT Times New Roman follow transliteration-guideline (available on official website) the translation must be italic, middle align and from the  editions of  MuftiTaqi Usmani only. The reference style for Quranic verse should be as follows:

The Holy Qur'an, surah num:ayat num, Translated by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Karachi:
Maktaba Ma’ariful Quran, 2010)

-For Hadith text (Arabic) use font AHT Times New Roman follow transliteration-guideline (available on official website) the translation in the body of manuscript must be italic, middle align and from the authentic books of hadith only. The reference style for Hadith should be as follows:

The Sahih Al-Bukhari, chap num:Hadith num, Translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Kahn (Riyadh:
Darussalam Publishers and Distributors, 1997)

-Only End-notes are allowed for citing sources in Chicago Manual of Style with no running sentences.

- A maximum number of three authors are allowed in an article.

-Please follow the below given Guide for representing Holy terms.


Guide to represent Holy Terms In Hamdard Islamicus


Word or phrase

Replace by



Allah Almighty


A.S. or Alaihissalam

(‘Alaih As-SalÉm)


A.S. or Alaihimassalam

(‘Alaihim As-SalÉm)


Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)/(SAWS)

(×aÌrat Muhammad RasËlullah KhÉtam un NabiyyÊn Øallallahu ‘alaihi wa  ‘alÉ  Ólihi wa AÎÍÉbihi wa Øallam)


(Peace be upon him)

(Øal Allah-u-‘alaihe wa sallam)


R.A. or Raziallah Anhu

(RaÌi Allah ‘anhu)


R.A. or Raziallah Anhuma

(RaÌi Allah ‘anhumÉ)


R.A. or Raziallah Anhum

(RaÌi Allah ‘anhum)


R.A. or Raziallah Anha

(RaÌi Allah ‘anhÉ)


R.A. or Raziallah Anhun

(RaÌi Allah ‘anhunna)


Rahmatullah alaih

(RaÍmat Allah ‘alaih)


Rahmatullah alaihima

(RaÍmat Allah ‘alaihimÉ)


Rahmatullah alaihim

(RaÍmat Allah ‘alaihim)



The Holy Qur’Én





 As per notification of Government of Pakistan, name of our Holy Prophet should be written as follows:

Hazrat Muhammad Rasullah Khatam un Nabiyyen Sallalahu Alihi Wa Aleihi Wa Sallam


Copyright Notice

Copyrights of all research papers published in Journal of the Hamdard Islamicus are held by the Hamdard Foundation. However, as the Hamdard Islamicus follows Budapest Open Access Initiative for global exchange of knowledge, readers are freely allowed to download, read and print the full text papers of  Hamdard Islamicus without prior permission from the Hamdard Islamicus or the author as long as they acknowledge/cite the  Hamdard Islamicus as the original source.

Research papers submitted to Hamdard Islamicus should be original and should not be under consideration to some other publisher at the same time. Authors warrant that they are the sole owner of their research work and their submission is not an infringement of any copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights and will indemnify the journal for any breach of such warranty.


Subscription Details

Inland: Annual: PKR 950/-, Single Copy: PKR 250/-

Foreign: Annual: USD 120/-, Single Copy: USD 35/-

Foreign Airmail Registered Postage: USD 20/-


Correction and Retraction Policy

Author Correction: An Author Correction may be published to correct an important error(s) made by the author(s) that affects the scientific integrity of the published article, the publication record, or the reputation of the authors or the journal. 

Publisher Correction: A Publisher Correction may be published to correct an important error(s) made by the journal that affects the scientific integrity of the published article, the publication record, or the reputation of the authors or of the journal.

Retraction: An article may be retracted when the integrity of the published work is substantially undermined owing to errors in the conduct, analysis and/or reporting of the study. Violation of publication or research ethics may also result in a study’s retraction. The original article is marked as retracted but a PDF version remains available to readers, and the retraction statement is bi-directionally linked to the original published paper. Retraction statements will typically include a statement of assent or dissent from the authors. The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.” A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.


Declaration for Conflict of Interest Policy

A potential conflicting interest might arise from relationships, allegiances or hostilities to particular groups, organizations or interests, which may influence excessively one’s judgments or actions. The issue is particularly sensitive when such interests are private and/or may result in personal gain.

As a result, Hamdard Islamicus requires a formal declaration of conflicting interest enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated published article.

Articles will be evaluated fairly and will not necessarily be rejected when any competing interest are declared. 

Examples of conflict of interest might include the following, although it is not an exhaustive list:

  • Having received fees for consulting.
  • Having received research funding.
  • Having been employed by a related company.
  • Holding stocks or shares in a company which might be affected by the publication of your paper.
  • Having received funds reimbursing you for attending a related symposia, or talk.

If there are other interests which the reasonable reader might feel has affected your research you may also wish to declare them.

*Please note that it is not expected that details of financial arrangements be disclosed when a competing interest is declared.


Author Agreement Statement

All authors are required to provide a signed statement declaring the originality of the Article. Sample text is as under:

We the undersigned declare that this manuscript is original, has not been published before and is

not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. We further confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us. We understand that the Corresponding Author is the sole contact for the Editorial process. He/she is responsible for communicating with the other authors about progress, submissions of revisions and final approval of proofs

Signed by all authors as follows:



Signature: _____________________________________


Author Consent Statement

Each author is required to submit a statement along with his/her submitted article showing his/her agreement with all the policies of the journal regarding publication of any article.


Authorship Policy


  1. Authorship Credit
    Authorship credits may only be given to those who have made a substantial contribution in constructing the article.
    The corresponding author of the article holds the responsibility to give credits to the co-authors that are significantly involved in the work. Also, the corresponding author should make sure that all the co-authors have approved the final submission and ready-to-publish version of the article.
    Others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research should be acknowledged for their contribution in an "Acknowledgement" section.
  2. Changes in Authorship
    The authors are fully responsible to provide the names of the authors upon submitting the article to the journal. Once the article is accepted for publication, any addition, deletion, or rearrangement of the authors’ names will not be entertained unless approved by the journal’s editor. To request such a change, the corresponding author must provide the journal’s editor with: (a) the reason for the change in the author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement, along with the confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances and with considerable reason/s will the editor may consider the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the editor considers the request, the processing of the manuscript for publication will be put on hold. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests may not be entertained by the editor.
  3. Order of Authors
    It the responsibility of the authors to have a mutual agreement on the order of the authors before submitting the article to the journal. Any such disagreements must be ruled out before the submission.
  4. Guest Authorship
    The “guest” author makes no significant contributions to the study, hence, do not qualify for authorship. The journal does not allow the appearance of guest authorship on the articles.
  5. Anonymous Authorship
    Since authorship should be transparent and requires public accountability, it is not appropriate to use pseudonyms or to publish scientific reports anonymously. In extremely rare cases, when the author can make a credible claim that attaching his or her name to the document could cause serious hardship (e.g., a threat to personal safety or loss of employment), a journal editor may decide to publish anonymous content.
  6. Acknowledgment
    In the Acknowledgments section, authors may wish to include the names and contributions of those whose involvement in a study did not qualify them for authorship (because of the journal policy) but have contributed to the article in some way.
  7. Duplicate Submission
    Articles that are found to have been published elsewhere, or are under consideration for publishing elsewhere, will be considered as "duplicated" material. In case the author(s) have used their own previously published work (or work that is currently under review), they are asked to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions and adds value differently (from the previous work).
  8. Citation Manipulation
    Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations in order to increase the number of citations to a given author’s work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will be considered as a "citation manipulation"-containing material.


Policy and principles of research data

Making available data for other researchers helps and supports the development of knowledge and makes the research process more effective. The nature of data varies from field to field but generally, it is the observations, experiments, and samples that confirm the results of previous findings and are not published as a journal paper. There are different formats of researcher data such as processed data, raw data, clean data, software, estimation techniques, methods, protocols, and research materials. Hamdard Islamicus is playing an important role to support researchers in terms of data availability. Hamdard Islamicus also encourage researchers to make data available which they used in their research for other researchers to benefits from them and used in their research as well.


Principles of research data

The following principles are followed by Hamdard Islamicus:

  • Encourage researchers to share research data where appropriate
  • Researchers are asking to make data available for other researchers to benefits from them and may use in their research.
  • Make it easier for researchers to be in line with data management requirements, such as supporting data availability statements to enhance transparency.
  • Research data vary among different fields of study, specific permission may be requested and requirements may be taken into account where needed.
  • Equal opportunity will be provided to all researchers in order to effectively reuse research data.


Rules for Details of Contribution of each researcher in the research paper

Contribution of each author in detail means which author has contributed to which part of the paper, for example, if there are two authors one contributed by writing introduction and literature while the second author contributed by doing analysis, estimation, writing results, interpretation, and conclusion.